Marathi

Marathi is an Indian language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people of Maharashtra. Marathi has some of the oldest literature of all modern Indo-Aryan languages, dating from about 900 AD. Early Marathi literature written during the Yadava (850-1312 CE) was mostly religious and philosophical in nature. Dnyaneshwar (1275–1296) was the first Marathi literary figure who had wide readership and profound influence. His major works are Amrutanubhav and Bhavarth Deepika (popularly known as Dnyaneshwari), a 9000-couplet long commentary on the Bhagavad Gita. (Source: Wikipedia)

Corpora

Use CorpusImporter() or browse the CLTK GitHub organization (anything beginning with Marathi_) to discover available Marathi corpora.

In [1]: from cltk.corpus.utils.importer import CorpusImporter

In [2]: c = CorpusImporter('Marathi')

In [3]: c.list_corpora
Out[3]:
['Marathi_text_wikisource']

Tokenizer

In [1]: from cltk.tokenize.indian_tokenizer import indian_punctuation_tokenize_regex as i_word

In [2]: sentence = "आतां विश्वात्मके देवे, येणे वाग्यज्ञे तोषावे, तोषोनि मज द्यावे, पसायदान हे"

In [3]: Marathi_text_tokenize = i_word(sentence)

In [4]: Marathi_text_tokenize
['आतां', 'विश्वात्मके', 'देवे,', 'येणे', 'वाग्यज्ञे', 'तोषावे,', 'तोषोनि', 'मज', 'द्यावे,', 'पसायदान', 'हे']

Alphabets

Alphabets of Marathi language are placed in cltk/corpus/Marathi/alphabet.py. DIGITS = ['०', '१', '२', '३', '४', '५', '६', '७', '८', '९']

In [1]: from cltk.corpus.Marathi.alphabet import DIGITS

In [2]: DIGITS[5]

Out[2]: '५'

There are 13 vowels in Marathi. All vowels have their indepenedent form and a matra form, which are used for modifying consonents: VOWELS = ['अ', 'आ', 'इ', 'ई', 'उ', 'ऊ', 'ऋ', 'ए', 'ऐ', 'ओ', 'औ', 'अॅ', 'ऑ'].

The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (I.A.S.T.) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages. It is based on a scheme that emerged during the nineteenth century from suggestions by Charles Trevelyan, William Jones, Monier Monier-Williams and other scholars, and formalised by the Transliteration Committee of the Geneva Oriental Congress, in September 1894. IAST makes it possible for the reader to read the Indic text unambiguously, exactly as if it were in the original Indic script. The vowels would be represented thus: IAST_REPRESENTATION_VOWELS = ['a', 'ā', 'i', 'ī', 'u', 'ū', 'ṛ', 'e', 'ai', 'o', 'au', 'ae', 'ao'].

In [1]: from cltk.corpus.Marathi.alphabet import VOWELS

In [2]: VOWELS

Out[2]: ['अ', 'आ', 'इ', 'ई', 'उ', 'ऊ', 'ऋ', 'ए', 'ऐ', 'ओ', 'औ', 'अॅ', 'ऑ']

In [3]: from cltk.corpus.Marathi.alphabet import IAST_REPRESENTATION_VOWELS

In [4]: IAST_REPRESENTATION_VOWELS

out[4]: ['a', 'ā', 'i', 'ī', 'u', 'ū', 'ṛ', 'e', 'ai', 'o', 'au', 'ae', 'ao']

Similarly we can import others vowels and consonants. There are 25 regular consonants (consonants that stop air from moving out of the mouth) in Marathi, and they are organized into groups ("vargas") of five. The vargas are ordered according to where the tongue is in the mouth. Each successive varga refers to a successively forward position of the tongue. The vargas are ordered and named thus (with an example of a corresponding consonant):

  1. Velar: A velar consonant is a consonant that is pronounced with the back part of the tongue against the soft palate, also known as the velum, which is the back part of the roof of the mouth (e.g., k).
  2. Palatal: A palatal consonant is a consonant that is pronounced with the body (the middle part) of the tongue against the hard palate (which is the middle part of the roof of the mouth) (e.g., j).
  3. Retroflex: A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate (e.g., English t).
  4. Dental: A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth (e.g., Spanish t).
  5. Labial: Labials or labial consonants are articulated or made with the lips (e.g., p).
VELAR_CONSONANTS = ['क', 'ख', 'ग', 'घ', 'ङ']

PALATAL_CONSONANTS = ['च', 'छ', 'ज', 'झ', 'ञ']

RETROFLEX_CONSONANTS = ['ट','ठ', 'ड', 'ढ', 'ण']

DENTAL_CONSONANTS = ['त', 'थ', 'द', 'ध', 'न']

LABIAL_CONSONANTS = ['प', 'फ', 'ब', 'भ', 'म']

IAST_VELAR_CONSONANTS = ['k', 'kh', 'g', 'gh', 'ṅ']

IAST_PALATAL_CONSONANTS = ['c', 'ch', 'j', 'jh', 'ñ']

IAST_RETROFLEX_CONSONANTS = ['ṭ', 'ṭh', 'ḍ', 'ḍh', 'ṇ']

IAST_DENTAL_CONSONANTS = ['t', 'th', 'd', 'dh', 'n']

IAST_LABIAL_CONSONANTS = ['p', 'ph', 'b', 'bh', 'm']

There are four semi vowels in Marathi:

SEMI_VOWELS = ['य', 'र', 'ल', 'व']

IAST_SEMI_VOWELS = ['y', 'r', 'l', 'w']

There are three sibilants in Marathi:

SIBILANTS = ['श', 'ष', 'स']

IAST_SIBILANTS = ['ś', 'ṣ', 's']

There is one fricative consonant in Marathi:

FRIACTIVE_CONSONANTS = ['ह']

IAST_FRIACTIVE_CONSONANTS = ['h']

There are three additional consonants:

ADDITIONAL_CONSONANTS = ['ळ', 'क्ष', 'ज्ञ']

IAST_ADDITIONAL_CONSONANTS = ['La', 'kSha', 'dnya']